Faculty Medicine Year: 2952008
Type of Publication: Theses Pages: 140
BibID 10423541
The term nosocomial infection is widely employed in the U.S.A. is synonymous with hospital acquired infection. The term nosocomial comes from word (nosokome) referring to hospital which is derived from the Greek Word (noses) meaning a disease.Nosocomial Infection (NI) is defined as ”Infection acquired by patients while they are in hospital or by members of hospital staff.Nosocomial infection is one of the most important causes of morbidity among hospitalized children, especially those in pediatric intensive care unit . It may be epidemic, endemic or sporadic.Nosocomial infection is considered as major problem because of their frequency, severity and cost.Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) are more likely to acquire NI due both to their underlying disease, with resulting impairment of the humoral and cellular immunity, and the invasive procedures that they undergo, causing breakdowns in their natural defense barriers .Pediatric intensive care units (PICUS) have been less well studied than those caring of neonates. The reasons for this are unclear, but may be reflect both the availability of fewer PICUS for study and a wider diversity of patients .Most PICUs care for a heterogeneous population of children of varying age, diagnosis, and underlying illness ranging from infants with congenital anomalies to adolescents with multiple traumas. Consequently, even patients admitted to the same PICU may differ substantially in their risk for nosocomial infections. Additional epidemiologic studies in PICU patients in no outbreak settings are necessary to better understand the scope of the problem to develop interventions.performed a prospective cohort study to determine the rate, risk factors, and outcomes of bloodstream infection in PICU patients.The control and prevention of NIs present a major challenge to patient care and infection control personnel, so the identification of risk factors for the development of NIs in PICUs is essential for adoption of adequate preventive measures. It is estimated that approximately one third of all nosocomial infections could be prevented if hospitals had effective programs for controlling such infections .